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6th International Conference on Glycobiology, Lipids & Metabolic Disorders, will be organized around the theme “Facts, fictions and future of glycos & lipids: A closure look”

Glycobiology Conference 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Glycobiology Conference 2019

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\r\n It involves the study of everything related to the structure, bio-synthesis, and biology of sugars and saccharides drawing from simple organic chemistry, molecular and cellular biologyenzymology and related domains. Like amino acids and nucleic acids, sugars are the major contributors in nature many natural products contain oligosaccharides that are important for their biological and biochemical activity and carbohydrates have major roles in a wider range of biological processes including signal transduction mechanisms and immune responses. So the study of glycan structures is also complicated by the lack of a proper and direct template for their biosynthesis, contrary to the case with amino acids and proteins.

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\r\n Glycoscience has become a vital, expanding and important extension of modern molecular biology and biomedicine in today’s era. The wider complexity of glycosylated and related structures is only paralleled to their utility. Discovering carbohydrate and glycan antigens as cancer biomarkers or even abnormal glycation pathways in metabolic disorders such as diabetes inhibited the importance of the expansion of glycoscience in a future, as a way of representing new biomarkers and therapeutic targets in disease. The final goal is to enhance research capabilities on glycosciences and provide ground to present and future emerging discoveries in glycosciences into new clinical applications and diagnostics.

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\r\n Proteoglycans are more than 95% carbohydrate by weight. Proteoglycan helps to provide us with the idea to the molecule's various chemical compositions. As proteo refers to the protein, while glycan represents sugar or a group of sugars, so proteoglycan is a long polysaccharide chain covalently attached to a protein. The protein component of proteoglycans is synthesized by ribosomes and mainly translocated into the lumen of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Sialic acid is a generic term for the N- or O-substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid, a monosaccharide with a nine-carbon backbone and are found widely distributed in animal tissues and to a lesser extent in some other organisms, ranging from fungi, plants, yeasts, and bacteria, mostly in glycoproteins and gangliosides.

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\r\n Glycoproteomics is emerging and booming as an important sub-discipline of proteomics, focusing on the role of protein glycosylation in various biological processes. It focusses on branch of proteomics that identifies, summarizes, and characterizes proteins containing carbohydrates as a post-translational modification by using Mass spectrometry which is commonly and widely used to identify the sugar moieties attached. Glycomics is the comprehensive study of glycomes the entire complement of sugars, whether free or present in more complex molecules of an organism including genetic, pathologic, physiologic, and other aspects. Glycomics "is the systematic study of all glycan structures of a given cell type or organism" and is a subset of glycobiology.

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\r\n Carbohydrates were very important in the early history of immunology in describing the identity of antigens which are recognized by antibodies. So the ability of these antibodies to uniquely recognize glycans and carbohydrate-related molecules was exploited in studies defining the size of the antigen-binding site. Numerous carbohydrate-binding proteins, or lectins, have been identified on the surfaces of immune cells which intensify the importance of carbohydrates in both innate and adaptive immune responses in the development of modern vaccines and immunological therapeutics. Recently glycobiologists and immunologists are now collaborating extensively to explore this crucial field in the area of immunobiology.

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\r\n Glycolipids are limited in fractions but known to be major and important contributors of glycoconjugates in all areas of life. The structural diversity of glycolipids is exceptional, as different types of lipids are glycosylated in almost every forms of life like animals, plants, and bacteria. Their role basically is to maintain the stability of the membrane and to facilitate other cellular recognition. They act as glycan-carriers in the membranes of photosynthetic structures in, algae, plants, and bacteria.

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\r\n Glycopeptides are basically peptides that contain carbohydrate moieties generally glycan’s which are covalently attached to the side chains of the amino acid residues that constitute the peptide. These include a class of drugs of microbial origin that are composed of glycosylated cyclic or polycyclic non-ribosomal peptides.

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\r\n Carbohydrates are basically considered as major sources of structural materials and energy for living organisms. Recent modern research’s in this area has focused mainly on simple basic sugars and homopolysaccharides such as starch, cellulose, glycogen, and chitin. During the last few decades, the researchers have shifted their focus on complex forms like carbohydrates, especially proteoglycans, glycolipids and glycoproteins which are collectively referred to as glycoconjugates that shows the potential of recognition markers in the biological system which also relates to other biomedical and clinical fields. The roles of glycans and glycoconjugates in cancer have been emphasized because a small alteration in glycosylation can tremendously regulate the whole pathway and mechanisms of cancer, which leads to an indication as a biomarker development leading to various therapeutics development in cancer research.

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\r\n Carbohydrate-rich molecules like including glycolipids, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans in the nervous system have important roles during development, regeneration and synaptic plasticity. The structural diversity of the carbohydrate moieties renders them ideally suited as stage-specific biomarkers for various cell types leading to mediate interactions between recognition molecules, thereby contributing to the formation of a complex molecular framework at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix of the cell. The exceptional structural diversity of glycan chains and related moieties allows for immense advanced possibilities that can lead to cell interactions along with cell-matrix interactions.

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\r\n Glycomics parallel to proteomics and genomics is the systematic study of all the glycan structures of a given cell type or organism and is a subset of glycobiology. Sugars are generally linked to other types of the biological molecule to form glycoconjugates. The various enzymatic process of glycosylation creates sugars or saccharides linked to themselves and to other molecules by the glycosidic bond, finally producing glycans. Proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids are the most abundant glycoconjugates found in mammalian cells. Glycoconjugates have been shown to be important and play a prominent role in cell-cell interactions due to the presence on the cell surface of various glycan binding receptors in addition to the glycoconjugates themselves.

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\r\n Mass spectrometry (MS) is a vital analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio. A mass spectrum is a plot of the ion signal as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio during experimental analysis. These spectra are then used to determine the elemental or isotopic signature of a sample for observations, the masses of particles and of various molecules, and to clarify the chemical structures of desired molecules, such as biomolecules, glycopeptides, and other chemical compounds.

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\r\n Recent technological advances in the field of glycobiology and glycochemistry are showing the way for a new era in carbohydrate related vaccine design. This is enabling a tremendous efficiency in the synthesis, identification, and evaluation of unique glycan epitopes found on a number of pathogens and cancerous cells. Glycans and related carbohydrate molecules are at the center of many disorders and diseases opening the possibility of exploiting them for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. There are various biochemical pathways and diseases in which carbohydrates are complexly involved.

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\r\n Glyco-epitope diversity enhances the role of glycan’s and is now considered essential for life, both under normal and pathological conditions. The vital role of glycans in the research and development of diseases and the possible therapeutic use of this class of molecules by describing how the interaction of glycans with growth factors, extracellular proteases, growth factor binding proteins, protease inhibitors, chemokine’s, morphogens, and adhesive proteins regulates inflammation, infection, atherosclerosis,  cancer, thrombosis, and embryonic stem cell biology.

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\r\n Hyperlipoproteinemia is the lipid unsettling influence of significant pertinence clinically as a result of its link with an enlarged danger of atherosclerotic cardiovascular sickness. Since lipids are not solvent in blood, they are transported as lipoproteins after response with water-dissolvable proteins in the blood. Lipids in the blood are consumed by liver cells to give vitality to cell capacities. Overabundance lipids in the blood are in the long run changed over into fat tissue. Unusually elevated amounts of triglycerides and cholesterol are speculated to be involved in solidifying of the corridors. 

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\r\n An individual lipid particle will stay in the annular shell around a protein for just a brief timeframe. Tying to the annular shell indicates generally minimal auxiliary specificity. And the annular lipid, there is proof for other lipid atoms bound between the transmembrane alpha-helices of the protein; these lipids are alluded to as non-annular lipids. Voltage-gated channels are key transducers of film potential changes into intracellular homeless people that start numerous physiological occasions. The conformational change mutilates the state of the channel proteins adequately such that the depression, or channel, opens to concede particle flood or efflux to happen over the layer, down its electrochemical angle. 

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\r\n Clinical drugs that connect with membrane lipids and that modify the composition and structure of cell membranes can transform the localization and/or activity of membrane proteins. In general, adjustments in membrane lipid structure are emulated in changes in membrane lipid activity. Several drugs used to fight against cancer, cardiovascular diseases and obesity and other pathologies, determine lipid structure in plasma membrane and they produce a concomitant alteration in the localization and activity of signaling proteins. The recent studies have resulted in identifying specific disease-provoking gene mutations and have led to improved clinical and laboratory treatments, prenatal diagnosis in lipid-related diseases.

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\r\n Lipid rafts/caveolae flagon formed structures are rich in proteins and additionally lipids, for example, cholesterol and sphingolipids and have a few capacities in signal transduction. They assume a part in disease cells advancement, endocytosis and the uptake of pathogenic microorganisms and certain infections. Ponders that have illustrated the part of lipid pontoons in flagging by means of bioreceptor tyrosine kinases and G protein-coupled receptors. The inositol phospholipids frame the basic premise for a mind-boggling interchange of flagging reactions created, most regularly, by receptor actuation and bringing about changes in Ca+2, protein kinase falls, and particle channel/exchanger movement. Phosphatidylinositol (PI) itself is a negligible phospholipid constituent of all eukaryote plasma films.

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\r\n Lipids are a diverse and ubiquitous group of compounds which have many key biological functions, such as acting as structural components of cell membranes, serving as energy storage sources and participating in cell signaling pathways. Lipids may be broadly defined small molecules that originate entirely or in part from two distinct as hydrophobic or amphipathic types of biochemical subunits or "building blocks": ketoacyl and isoprene groups. The huge structural diversity found in lipids arises from the biosynthesis of various combinations of these building blocks.

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\r\n Lipidomics has been incredibly encouraged by late advances in, and novel utilization of, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS. Lipidomic concentrates on to assume a fundamental part in characterizing the biochemical metabolism of lipid-related sickness forms through distinguishing adjustments in cell lipid digestion system, trafficking, and homeostasis. The two noteworthy stages at present utilized for lipidomic investigations are HPLC-MS and shotgun lipidomics. Lipidomics not just gives experiences into the particular elements of lipid species in wellbeing and infection, yet will likewise distinguish potential biomarkers for building up preventive or restorative projects for human illness.

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